The relationship between ammonia (NH3) concentrations downwind from a penguin colony and local surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was investigated on the remote sub-Antarctic Bird Island (54°00′S, 38°03′W) during summer 2010 (November and December). A Macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) colony (40,000 pairs) at Goldcrest Point is a large point source of NH3 on the island and a measurement transect of 23 m, 36 m, 70 m, 143 m and 338 m was set up downwind from the colony. Atmospheric NH3 concentrations measured by passive diffusion samplers declined from 23 μg m−3 close to the colony to less than 1 μg m−3 338 m downwind. As increased nitrogen (N) deposition can affect soil carbon (C) and N cycling, it can therefore potentially influence GHG and nitric oxide (NO) emission rates. However, in this study, a clear correlation between surface GHG fluxes and atmospheric NH3 concentrations could not be established. Average fluxes for nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) over the entire transect and the eight week study period ranged from 7 to 23 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1, −5.5–245 μg CH4 m−2 h−1, and CO2 respiration rates averaged 2.2 μmol m−2 s−1. Laboratory studies using intact soil cores from the transect also did not show any significant correlation between atmospheric NH3 concentrations and N2O, NO, CH4 emissions or CO2 respiration rates. Overall, fluxes measured in the laboratory study reflected the high variability measured in the field. Large changes in soil depth along the transect, due to the topography of the island, possibly influenced fluxes more than NH3 concentration and seabirds appeared to have a more localised input (e.g. ground nesting birds). However, warmer temperatures might have a large potential to increase GHG fluxes in this ecosystem. This study confirms that GHG fluxes do occur in these ornithogenic ecosystems, however, the scale of the impact remains largely unquantified due to high uncertainties and high spatial variability.
Being a military brat, and having moved a fair number of times during my childhood, I missed out on a lot of time with my grandparents. One set lived in the mountains of Southwest Virginia, the other in Southern Mississippi, and after leaving Mississippi at the age of four for California, I never lived fewer than eight hours away from either pair. In fact, with my dad taking two tours of duty in Germany during my teens, I was an ocean away for six years.Looking back, I cherish the way I was able to grow up, living around the country and the world, but there is a regret there, an envy, when I hear from friends who were able to grow up closely surrounded by their extended families.Nashville based songwriter Chris Kessenich took inspiration from his grandfathers, both named Art, for his latest project. Arts Fishing Club, named for the time Chris spent on the water with his grandfathers, released the first part of its debut record, Human, late last month.Human I is the first of a two part song collection featuring jangling guitars, equally soaring and contemplative keys, and introspective lyrics highlighting the lessons his imparted to Chris at the feet, and behind the reel, of his grandfathers.I recently caught up with Chris to chat about grandfathers, the new record, and life lessons learned from fishing.BRO – Fondest memory of those fishing sessions with your grandfathers?CK – Unfortunately, my dad’s father, Colonel Arthur Kessenich, passed when I was in fourth grade. I literally only have one or two memories of him and one of those was him teaching me how to fish off a dock at a cabin in Wisconsin. The fishing connection with him is particularly meaningful, as it represents 50% of my memories with him. My other grandfather, Arthur Schmidt, used to take my cousins and me up to Canada fishing. I don’t know that there is one particular memory that sticks out. Just getting to spend that much time with people you love doing nothing but slaying pike and walleye. Those were some pretty special times.BRO – Fly fishing? Spinners? Preference?CK – I’m so enamored by fly fishing, but I am god-awful at it. We grew up fishing on the lakes in Wisconsin, so it’s primarily spinners, spoons, bucktails, and jiggin’. To be completely honest, I’m a pretty terrible fisherman relative to all my cousins. I’m the guy that will be in the boat and everyone else will have caught four big ole boys and I’ll have lost my one hit. I think I’m better at singing and drinking. Things have been better in recent years, but that is probably why my grandfathers’ philosophy – it’s not what you catch, but who you share it with – has resonated with me so much.BRO – Human is coming out in two volumes. Is there a particular theme that defines this first set of songs and sets it apart from the upcoming second volume?CK – The subject matter in both parts of Human covers a lot of emotions and ideas, so I wouldn’t say there is a particular theme, except for the exploration of what it means to be human in this day and age. Human I is much darker in lyrical tone. Human II is less lyrically intense, though it still has its moments.BRO – We are featuring “Icarus” on this month’s Trail Mix. What’s the story behind the song?CK – “Icarus” was written to be a bit ironic or satirical. Whichever one, I always screw those up. The story of Icarus in Greek mythology is about hubris and excess. When I wrote the song, I was looking back on a time in my life that was marked by partying and undue excess. It’s supposed to feel like a party song that gets you dancing, because that’s what we’re doing. We’re partying. But when you start peeling back the layers, you’ll find it is more of a critique than a rallying call or manic party tune.BRO – Flash forward to your first time fishing with your own grandchild. What’s the first lesson you impart?CK – Well, that’s a fun though to entertain. Suddenly, I’m grinning from ear to ear. I think I’ll steal from my grandparents. That taught me that fishing is about casting over and over again, coming up empty-handed and doing it over anyway. And if we don’t catch anything, we haven’t wasted our time. I think that fishing is such an amazing metaphor for creativity and life. I’d want that lesson to sink in. Either that or make sure you know what’s behind you before you cast the hook!Arts Fishing Club’s tour schedule is pretty quiet until December, when fans can catch the band in Nashville and NYC. Until then, be sure to check out the band’s website for tour updates and how you can get your hands on Human I and the forthcoming Human II.Make sure you take a listen to to “Icarus,” along with new tunes from The Brother Brothers, The Watson Twins, Greta Van Fleet, and many more on this month’s Trail Mix.
Scott is the Principal of Your Credit Union Partner, PLLC.Your Credit Union Partner (YCUP) is a trusted advisor to the leaders of more than 100 credit unions located throughout … Web: www.yourcupartner.org Details It’s easy to take a look at the world around us and see one huge, hot mess. Scroll social media or watch five minutes of the 10 o’clock news, and you’re quickly reminded that we live and work in a very chaotic time. Our society is polarized, politically and economically, and the shouting can be intense. The world itself seems to be falling apart through climate change and the hate-inspired philosophies of men.At the micro-level, many of us are running as fast we can, just trying to keep up. Despite the positive facades we try to project, we all have challenges that we’re dealing with. In a very connected world, many feel alone, undervalued, and struggle to find meaning in their lives. Take a deep breath. When we feel like we’re running faster than we’re able, or when we feel alone and don’t think we’re making a meaningful difference, we need to slow down, take a deep breath, and reground ourselves. For me, the meaning of my life is all mixed up into one great-big interconnected smorgasbord that includes faith, family, friends, and service to others. Each provides me with reassurance, guidance, and joy. I place my work with credit unions into the “service to others” category. This work is aligned with my values and gives me endless opportunities to stretch, grow, and find joy in the process. Some may categorize credit unions as an industry. Not me. I view credit unions as a purposeful movement towards financial inclusion and a better quality of life for the people and communities credit unions serve. Because I enjoy it so much, it isn’t work after all. I’m intentionally pursuing a path that includes my work with credit unions to gain opportunities to transform, leave things a little better than I found them, and to bring me joy. What path are you on?It IS possible to find joy in a chaotic world, and that includes your workplace. To do so, you need to find your purpose. Once you do, I believe it’s the pursuit of this purpose that generates the greatest joy. During my long credit union journey, I’ve worked with people who find joy in their work and those who are miserable. The most joyful people I know in the credit union space are those who have values congruent with their organization. In every case, these individuals are substantially engaged in work that fulfills them. They are learning, growing, and serving either coworkers, members, or communities they value. I find these people in credit unions of all shapes and sizes. Frequently, they’re working long hours with limited resources. They’ve discovered joy because they believe they are making a difference. They are busy, but they find ways to make extraordinary things happen. The unhappiest people I see are usually in toxic cultures or working in environments not aligned with their passion, strengths, or values. They may feel trapped because they need the income, or are afraid to change – but they’re not happy and not living their best life.As crazy as our world, life, and work environment can be, it’s still possible to find joy and fulfillment. I’m talking about more than a weekend getaway (or in my case, a day spent fly-fishing). Short-term escapes are great, but not enough in the long run. Pursue a path that is right for you, personally and professionally.“Far too many people spend a lifetime headed in the wrong direction. They go not only from the cradle to the cubicle, but then to the casket, without uncovering their greatest talents and potential.” – Tom Rath, StrengthsFinder 2.0Why it mattersCredit unions operate in fiercely competitive markets, with constantly evolving consumer needs in changing economic times. Only the most robust and most relevant (not biggest) will survive. Today, more than ever, millions of consumers need a financial advocate. As long as there are people who are overlooked or underserved, there will be a specific need for credit unions (small, medium, and large). Helping credit unions fulfill this need gives my life purpose – but it isn’t for everyone, and that is okay.If you’re the kind of person who thrives on helping others, the credit union movement has a place for you. Credit unions need people who will push hard, overcoming obstacles and challenges, and who can find innovative ways to help more people and achieve a more significant impact for their team, the members, and the communities they serve. This will require people on our teams who are internally motivated to stand up, raise their hands, get involved, and stick their necks out – then wake up and do it all over again the next day.Working together, we can find the Tao (way) of credit unionism and the meaningful difference it can make in our lives and in the lives of the people we serve. 16SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Scott Butterfield